History

Special thanks to Dave Snyder and the University Lowbrow Astronomers for permission to include this chronology of events.

The National Solar Observatory has an excellent historical account of the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope which includes a section devoted to Robert R. McMath.

1922
Two businessmen, Francis C. McMath and his son Robert R. McMath had an interest in astronomy and acquired a 3" telescope.

1925
Francis McMath, Henry S. Hulbert (a Judge from Wayne County, Michigan), and William Joseph Hussey (then director of the Detroit Observatory) arranged to fly a balloon to observe a solar eclipse in New York, but weather conditions prevented any observations.

1926
A 4" refractor was constructed.  It was driven with a spring clock.

1927
Robert designed and built a dome to house the 4" telescope built earlier.

1928
A motor was installed to drive the 4" telescope.  That summer, motion pictures were made of the moon with this new observatory.  Then director of the University of Michigan Astronomy Department, Ralph H. Curtiss, saw these motion pictures and decided to collaborate with the two McMath's.  The intent was to produce an instrument that would produce celestial motion pictures.  Curtiss died before the project was finished.  (Apparently the idea of celestial motion pictures originated at this time as the concept was described as "novel").

1929
Hulbert teamed up with the two McMath's.  All three were made honorary curators of astronomical observation at the request of Dr. Curtiss.

1930
McMath, McMath and Hulbert started operations at a new observatory located on Lake Angelus (near Pontiac Michigan).  There was one building with a 16 foot dome that housed a 10.5" equatorial telescope.

1931
Heber Doust Curtis accepted the position of University of Michigan's Director of Observatories.  He suggested that the observatory be named the McMath-Hulbert Observatory in recognition of the three founders.

1932
The original intent of the celestial motion pictures was educational, but it became clear that such pictures had scientific value as well.  With that in mind a motion picture of the sun was produced.  This required a new instrument called a spectroheliokinematograph.  This instrument was attached to the end of the 10.5" refractor.  Such pictures showed solar prominences.

1933
An extensive project was undertaken to produce a telescope drive that would smoothly track.  This eventually involved a partnership with the Detroit Edison company.  Only late in the year was a completely satisfactory drive produced.

1933
Neil Cook McMath (Robert's brother) joined the effort.

1934
By this time Curtis had shown the pictures taken at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory to a large number of people including lay audiences and scientists.  The scientific audience was impressed both with the novelty and with the insights gained from the movies.

1936
A 50 foot tower was constructed designed solely for solar observations.  The Mt. Wilson Observatory gave technical assistance and loaned some equipment (including a diffraction grating).  Funding was provided by the University and the McGregor Fund.  This tower had a spectrograph well that dropped 31 feet into the ground.  With this tower it was possible to observe prominences in three dimensions and to observe the sun's light in both hydrogen and calcium.  The focal length could be any of 50, 40, 20 or 6 feet.  The Spectrograph had a focal length of either 15 or 30 feet.  In addition to the other equipment, there was a radial velocity spectrograph.

1936
The work of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory gave proof that the light pressure theory of solar prominences (popular at the time) could not be true.

1938
An auxiliary photoelectric guiding mechanism was constructed.

1939
A technique for measuring motions of solar material along the line of sight was developed (previously only measurements of motions perpendicular to the line of sight could be made).

1939
The property on which the three buildings were built was deeded to the University.

1940
After the death of F. C. McMath, a 24" Cassegrain (a reflector telescope) was completed, but not made use of until the next year.  This telescope was designed so various instruments could be attached.  In honor, it was named the F. C. McMath Memorial Telescope.  This telescope was later moved to Peach Mountain were it is now used by the University Lowbrow Astronomers.

1941
A new building known as the McGregor building in memory of Tracy W. McGregor was constructed (a tower 75 foot high).  This instrument allowed the sun's energy changes to be measured (among other things).  There were 3 spectrographs and a diffraction grating.

1941
The 10.5" telescope was replaced with the new 24" telescope.

1955
A Vacuum Spectrograph was constructed.  This was one of the last big astronomical instruments to be built without government assistance.

1958-1959
The 24" telescope was moved from Lake Angelus to Peach Mountain.

1961
Robert McMath became chairman of AURA, Inc. (an astronomy research organization).  See Portage Lake Observatory for more information on AURA.

1979
The University ends its support for the McMath-Hulbert Observatory.


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